Determination of trace amounts of lead by adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry in the presence of xylenol orange


Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Islamic Azad University – Arak Branch, Arak, Iran


Lead forms the complexes with xylenol orange in the basic solution. An adsorptive
differential pulse stripping method for the determination of lead is proposed. The procedure
involves an adsorptive accumulation of lead on a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) in
the presence of xylenol orange, followed by reduction of adsorbed lead by voltammetric scan
using differential pulse modulation. The optimum experimental conditions are: xylenol orange
concentration of 0.20 μg mL-1, pH 10.5, accumulation potential of -900 mV versus Ag/AgCl,
accumulation time of 200 s, scan rate of 10 mV s-1 and pulse height of 100 mV. The peak current
is proportional to the concentration of lead over range of 0.03-0.65 μg mL-1, and the detection
limit is 0.01 μg mL-1. The relative standard deviations (n=3) for 0.10 μg mL-1 lead is 0.86%,
respectively. The proposed method was applied to the determination of lead in hair and water
samples with satisfactory results.


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