Anodic stripping voltammetry determination of Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu in blood samples of children in some areas of Ibb governorate


1 Department of Chemistry,, Faculty of Science , University of Ibb, Ibb, Yemen

2 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Science, University of Taiz, Ibb, Yemen


Anodic stripping voltammetric determination of Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu in blood samples of 132 children was developed. The children's ages range was between 6 months and 6 years and the samples were collected from different areas of Ibb governorate (Yemen). We used anodic stripping voltammetry for analyzing and determination of cited metals in the blood of all children. Large variation in the results have been correlated to the area inhabited, age differences and other factors. It was found that areas, which have environmental struts such as waste solid and waste water, had more quantities of these metals in blood samples in comparison with other safer sites. This is may be due to the lower concentration of Cd and Pb in samples. Also the results indicate that both Pb, Cd found in high mean concentration in blood samples of males children than in females children similarly the effect of age indicate that all younger children (between 6 months and 1 year) had shown comparatively lesser quantity of these metals in comparison with elder children (between 4 – 6 yeas).


[1] P.F. Wang, S.H. Zhang, C. Wang, J. Hou, P.C. Guo, Z.L. Lin, African J. Biotech 7 (2008) 1329-1334.
[2] K.G. Tiller, Advan. Soil. Sci 9 (1989) 113-142.
[3] J.A. Omgbu, M.A. Kokogbo. Environ. Int. 19 (1993) 611-612.
[4] L. Uzych, J. Biol. Med. 58 (1985) 9-15.
[5] J.E. Macdonell, D.H. Campbell-Handstone. Arch. Dis. Child 82 (2000) 50-58.
[6] M. Sallmen, M.L. Lindbohn, A. Antilla, H. Taskinen, K. Hemminki, J. Spidemiol, Community. Health 46 (1992) 519-522.
[7] C. Baird, Environmental Chemistry, 2nd ed, New York, W.H. Freeman and Company, 2000.
[8] M.Z. Fang, W. Mar, M.H. Cho. Toxicology 15 (2002) 253-258.
[9] J. Popko, S. Ouszewski, K. Hukalowicz, R. Markiewiez, M.H. Borawaska, P. Szeparowiez. Polish . J. Enviro. Studies 12 (2003) 375-379.
[10] I. Pais, J.B. Jones, The Handbook of Trace Elements, Florida, Lucia Press Boca Raton, 1997.
[11] S.A. Albbasi, S. Rajindra. Heavy Metals in the Environmental, 1st ed, New Delhi, Mitral Publications, 1998.
[12] J. Krausma, N. Lembit, L. Electroanalysis 16 (2004) 399-405.
[13] J. Krausma, N. Lembit, C. E. Banks, R. G. Compton. Analy. Chim. Acta 510 (2004) 85-90.
[14] L. Hurley, H. Sandswenerton. Proc. Son. Exp. Biol. Med. 123 (1966) 692-696.
[15] M. Krachler, E. Rossipal, D. Micetic, Turk. Eur. J. Chic. Nutr. 53 (1999) 447-452.
[16] R. Uauy, M. Olivares, M. Gonzales, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 67 (1998) 952-959.
[17] D. Kandzierska, Pedsatr. Pol. 64 (1989) 4-10.
[18] J. Zhao, J. Shouqui, C. Shikn, J. Desen, D. Chakraborti, Fresen. J. Anal. Chem. 337 (1990) 887-881.
[19] A. Osofsky, P.H. Jowelt, J. Avian. Med. Surgery 15 (2001) 31-36.
[20] Q.B. Garfinkeld, Med. Hypotheses 42(1994) 380-384.
[21] P.K. Mahajan, B.S. Lark, T.P. S. Walia. Ind. J. Environ. Health 44 (2002) 2-10.
[22] R.K. Mahajan, T.P.S. Walia, Online J. Health. Allied. Sci. 4 (2005) 1-8.
[23] U. Celik, J. Oehlenschlager. 18 (2007) 258-261.
[24] J. Behrooz, S. Naficeh, M. R. Oveisi, A. Behfar, H. Komeilizadeh, A. Shafaati, Iranian. J. Pharma. Res. 8 (2009) 159-162.
[25] T.J. Farrant, Practical Statistics for the Analytical Scientist, 1st ed, The Royally Society of Chemistry, 1997.
[26] M.H. Matloob, A.M. AL-Jofi, M.H. Saleh, A.M. Aqlan, Qatar. Univ. Sci. J. 24 (2004) 94-100.
[27] M.H. Matloob, A.M. AL-Jofi, M.H. Saleh, University the Researcher 3 (2001) 107-130.
[28] A. Al-Sabahi, S. Abdul Rahim, W.Z. Wan Yacob, F. Al Nozaily, F. Alshaebi, E.J.G.E. 4 (2009) 1-12.
[29] N.A. Alhemiary, Study the Effect of the Water Treatment Plant Sanitation of the City of Ibb on Chemical Pollution of the Waters of Some Wells Located in the Basin of the Valley Orphanage, Book publication of the Second International Conference of Minia, The environment and Community Development in Third World Countries. Minia, Egypt, (2009) 61-72.
[30] A. C. Chamberlin. Atomos. Environ 17 (1983) 677 – 692.
[31] S. Turgut, A. Polat, M. Inan, G. Turgut, G. Emmugil, M. Bican, T.Y. Karakus, O. Genc, J. Pediatrics 74 (2007) 827-830.
[32] D.L. Al-Saleh, A. Taylor. Arch .Environ. Health 49 (1994) 471-476.
[33] V. Pitman, S. Hilts. Trail Health Envir. Comm. 4 (2007) 1-4.
[34] CDC, Interpreting and Managing Blood Lead Levels in Children and Reducing Childhood Exposures to Lead, Atlanta, G. A: US Department of Health and Human Services. CDC, 56 (2007) 1-20.
[35] S.G. Hans, H. Sigel, Handbook of Toxicity of Inorganic Compounds, New York, Marcel Dekker. Inc, 1998.
[36] M. Wilhelm, I. Lombeck, F.K. Ohnesorge. Sci. Total. Environ. 141 (1994) 275-80.
[37] S. Teliman, P. Cvitković, J. Jurasović, A. Pizent, M. Gavella, B. RoČić. Environm. Health. Perspectives 108 (2000) 45-53.