Degradation of crystal violet using copper modified iron oxide as heterogeneous photo-fenton reagent


Photochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University College of Science, M. L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur, India


The heterogeneous photo-Fenton degradation of crystal violet under visible light has been investigated using
copper modified iron oxide. The photocatalyst has been prepared by coprecipitation method. The rate of
photocatalyic degradation of dye was monitored spectrophotometrically. It has been observed that
photocatalytic degradation follows pseudo first order kinetics. The effect of various parameters like pH,
concentration of dye, amount of photocatalyst, amount of H2O2 and light intensity on the rate of photo-
Fenton degradation has also been observed. Photocatalyst has been characterized by IR spectroscopy,
scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of the reaction
mixture before and after exposure was determined. A tentative mechanism for the photocatalytic degradation
of crystal violet has also been proposed. Involvement of •OH radicals has been confirmed by using
isopropanol and butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) as •OH radical scavengers. It has been observed that rate
of reaction is drastically reduced in the presence of these scavangers. Under similar conditions Fe2O3 has
also been prepared. The efficiency of Fe2O3 and copper modified Fe2O3 has been compared for the
photocatalytic degradation of crystal violet.
Structure of crystal violet


[1] A. G. Vlyssides, D. Papaioannou, M. Loizido, P. K. Karlis, A. A. Zorpas, Waste Manage. 20 (2000) 569-
[2] Y.-C. Li, L. -D. Zou, E. Hu, J. Environ. Sci. 16 (2004) 375-379.
[3] A. F. Martins, M. L. Wilde, C. Dasilveira, J. Environ. Sci. Health. 41 (2006) 675-685.
[4] H. J. H. Fenton, J. Chem. Soc. 65 (1894) 899-911.
[5] A. G. Vlyssides, H. Loukakis, P. K. Karlis, Environ. Technol. 24 (2003) 931-935.
[6] S. Lee, J. Oh, Y. Park, Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 27 (2006) 489-494.
[7] L. Gomathi Devi, K. S. Anantha Raju, S. Girish Kumar, J. Environ. Monit. 11 (2009) 1397-1404.
[8] T. M. El-Morsi, M. M. Emara, M. H. Hassan, Abd El Bary, A. S. Abd-El-Aziz, K. J. Friesen,
Chemosphere 47 (2002) 343–348.
[9] P. B. Punjabi, R. Ameta, D. Vaya, S Lodha, J. Serb. Chem. Soc. 73 (2008) 631-639.
[10] P. B. Punjabi, V. K. Sharma, A. Jain, S. Lodha, Ind. J. Chem. 47A (2008) 397-400.
[11] F. Duarte, L. M. Madeira, Separ. Sci. Technol. 45 (2010) 1512-1520.
[12] N. Soon, B. H. Hameed, Desalination 269 (2011) 1-16.
[13] F. Martínez, G. Calleja, J. A. Melero, R. Molina, Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 60 (2005) 181–190.
[14] H. Li, P. Wu, Z. Dang, N. Zhu, P. Li J. Wu, Clays Clay Miner. 59 (2011) 435-437.
[15] J. Y. Feng, X. J. Hu., P. L. Yue, H. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lu, Wat. Res. 37 (2003) 3776-3784.
[16] L. Liu., G. Zhang, L. Wang, T. Huang, L. Qin, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 50 (2011) 7219–7227.
[17] Q. Chen, P. Wu, Y. Li, N. Zhu, Z. Dang, J. Hazard. Mater. 168 (2009) 901-908.
[18] B. De la Plata, O. M. Alfano, A. E. Cassano, Appl. Catal. B. 95 (2010) 14-25.
[19] S. Yang, H. He, D. Wu, D. Chen, Y. Ma, X. Li, J. Zhu, P. Yuan, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 48 (2009)
[20] A. Jain, S. Lodha, P.B. Punjabi, V.K. Sharma, S.C. Ameta, Ind. Acad. Sci., 121 (2009) 1027-1034.
[21] J. Sharma, R. Ameta, V. K. Sharma, P. B. Punjabi, Bull. Catal. Soc. Ind. 9 (2010) 99-106.
[22] G. Velraj, K. Prabhakaran, A. Mohamad Musthafa, R. Hemamalini, Ind. Rec. Res. Sci. Technol. 2